Advanced selection program for Authentic Apis mellifera carnica

Breeding for varroa tolerance.
Expression of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH)
Hygienic behaviour – vsh-001-authentic-apis-m-carnica
Hygienic behaviour is recognized as a natural antiseptic defence against the brood diseases, American foulbrood and chalkbrood, and against varroa (Boecking and Spivak, 1999; Evans and Spivak, 2010; Spivak and Reuter, 2001; Wilson-Rich et al., 2009) and thus may be relevant in breeding programmes for resistance to these pathogens and parasite. Standardized methods for testing hygienic behaviour are based on the removal of freeze killed (Momot and Rothenbuhler, 1971; Spivak and Reuter, 1998) or pin killed brood (Newton and Ostasiewski, 1986). Furthermore, Harbo and Harris (2005) described a method to check for a specific hygiene behaviour induced by reproducing mites in brood cells, called Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH).